Understanding then Compliance, or Compliance then Understanding…?

Compliance then Understanding

A key phrase struck me when reading Cassie Cheng’s most recent blog post, concerning the way in which lesson observations are handled at Michaela (a very positive post I thought overall).

It was this phrase included in an example of the kind of email feedback which she gets…

…You don’t always need to seek understanding from the kids, but if they have any kind of negative reaction, give them a second DM.  They’ll get the message! ..”

Now, as Cassie has clarified in the comments section to this post, there is a carefully calculated procedure going on with this, and this post isn’t an analysis of what is actually done at Michaela. However, when I initially read it, I paused for thought, and contemplated the notion of simply driving-home the punishments irrespective of whether or not a child understands why they are getting them. I have to be clear, in the same feedback on Cassie’s post it is made plain that the reason for a demerit should be openly stated, so I’m not for a moment suggesting that what is going-on here is obscure or hidden. Rather, I think that the point being made is that teachers shouldn’t have to justify the RULE, even if they do justify (in positive terms) why the CONSEQUENCE is being given with reference to the rule. Indeed, as Cassie points out below, the key thing here is signalling the DM without the lesson being de-railed.

However, pondering the thoughts opened-up by this reminds me of two forms of Catholic schooling experience which I had as a Primary School child. One of these was in Blackburn, at a (now demolished) prep school. I recall the Head Mistress there – a nun called Sister Gabriel (an extraordinary lady in all the best senses) explain that the reason why it was appropriate to smack children was because they didn’t know what they were doing. In other words, since children couldn’t be reasoned into good behaviour, they needed to be trained behaviourally.

I then moved down to a state Primary School in Devon – again led by a nun – Sister Canice (an extraordinary lady in all the best senses) – who I recall explaining that because children didn’t know what they were doing,  it was unfair to smack them. In other words, they didn’t deserve punishment.

I’ve always looked-back with fascination on such an opposing conclusion being drawn from the same apparent starting point – not least because I understood both their perspectives. Sister Gabriel’s position was from a forward-thinking formative perspective: you need to get children to a particular position behaviourally, irrespective of whether or not they are able to reason themselves to that position, or are even old enough to understand why once it is pointed-out to them.

Sister Canice’s position on the other hand was from a retrospective restorative justice perspective: It was unfair to treat these kids as if they knew what they were doing, and punish them accordingly; they simply didn’t deserve it.

Now, of course it is also possible to see Sister Canice’s position as being a kind of forward-thinking one; She wanted to create humans who valued fairness and reasonableness as they moved-forward in life. However, the question which I find myself pondering is: at what level might conformity serve us better than fairness…?

It is clear that there are some areas where we really need to train children to comply without waiting for them to discover for themselves why, or without even needing to give them a reason why. For young children, sticking fingers into plug sockets and running towards roads are two examples. It is also clear that – if they’re being brought-up as humans rather than dogs – we should seek understanding from them if we expect them to toe the line. Perhaps allegiance to a particular political party, or adult participation in a religious tradition would be examples of this.

Where do we stand on this with school rules? How much does the social cohesion of a pattern of respected school norms – with the knock-on in productiveness in other goal-seeking areas (i.e. a minimisation of distractions in lessons) – prove itself to be more important for the creation of an 18 year old mature human, than the pursuit of understanding and full-hearted consent? To what degree does this follow the tension between micro and macro justice which I wrote about here?

I know full well that this isn’t a fully clear binary issue, and the truth of the question may rely entirely on the exact circumstances of the situation we find ourselves in. I’m more raising it as a question rather than proposing a definitive answer. However, I can clearly see situations where in the past, my own formation through areas I neither understood nor had choice over, gave me a strength and an understanding which, with hindsight, I’m not sure I would have had otherwise.

To quote from the most recent Doctor Who episode…”Your consent must be pure…” Must it really be in education? As a society, can’t we actually justify NOT requiring consent of children for school rules based on our own experience of seeing the usefulness in our lives retrospectively? Isn’t there a case that – imperfect though they are – human adults are a little less imperfect than human children when it comes to judging what will be in the interests of said children, and the classrooms which they inhabit? I spent some years in charge of a boarding-house for 7-14 year olds, and a proclamation I occasionally heard when laying-down the law (and despite my best efforts at having justified it) was “But I don’t see why we can’t…..!”. “Yes,” I would respond, “and that is why we don’t have 13 year olds running the boarding house…”

A final reflection: Both my parents were piano teachers. We had two pianos in the house when I was young, and for me they were like TV’s. Every house has a piano I thought. My mum kept trying to teach me piano, but kept giving-up if I lost interest (which I tended to do after 3 weeks). She never wanted to force me to learn, and so I never did. If I resent my mother for anything which she has ever done, it is that she never forced me to learn piano when I had such an opportunity! (It’s ok Mum – I don’t really resent you for anything, but………….)

I would really welcome responses to this….

Why Michaela can never be generalised

Michaela Adapted

This post is nothing to do with the overall theory and educational approach of Michaela School. It is not a critique which suggests that there is anything about the way in which it is doing things which is wrong. It also is nothing to do particularly with whether or not society will ever any longer tolerate a ‘one size fits all’ approach to schooling – of any kind. I have not visited Michaela, and I have not even read Battle Hymn of the Tiger Teachers yet (it’s taken its place in line on my Kindle though).

Rather, it is about inevitable features of the school which makes it fundamentally different to the majority of similar schools which might follow, and perhaps which might be worth bearing in mind when its public exam results start to roll-in and (hopefully) people also reflect down the line on the success of its ex-pupils in life beyond education. It’s going to be a while before we can truly assess the model of education which it’s espousing…

Michaela is both trail-blazing and it is unique – and it is this uniqueness which means that they are going to be hard to replicate. For a start, as David Didau and Katharine Birbalsingh acknowledge, good schools create a belief in their children that their school is special, and that they are in some way the fortunate ones for being there; a special in-group which is defined by how much better it is than the ‘out-group’:

“This is, I think, how successful schools in disadvantaged areas operate. They create an in-group where ‘we’ are different to everyone out there. ‘We’ feel privileged to be in the in-group and appalled at the idea of what it must be like to be a member of the out-group. ‘We’ notice everything that makes us different from ‘them’ and we revel in the differences.” (From The Learning Spy)

“If you read nothing else, read this by David Didau. It is so spot-on in everything it says. It chimes with my years of experience in a variety of schools and it is for these reasons that at Michaela, we do as David says: we talk about being ‘Top of the Pyramid’. Many schools do this. It is a trick of illusion used by teachers in their classrooms and heads in their schools. “We are better than them” is the sentiment. We can behave better, work harder, strive more, and these attributes make us ‘better’. We aren’t failures like the kids who choose gang life over a life of hard work. We are better than that. At Michaela, we so believe in the sentiment that we have ‘Top of the Pyramid’ painted on the wall. We are the best. We are so damn good, we are going to give those boys at Eton who think they are the best a real run for their money. Think you are the best Eton? You haven’t met Michaela yet.” (from To Miss With Love)

Why do schools do this? It is a psychological trick to help create self-fulfilling prophecies, where children work in line with the aspirations which they have now acquired due to their belief that they actually have everything to play for in life. Perhaps it’s quite allied to Growth Mindset theory.

Of course, the danger is that many children – particularly cynical and increasingly worldly wise teens – are likely to see through this unless they genuinely are privileged to be at a particular school due to the special features it objectively has compared to other schools. (Which is easy to convince yourself of if you are at the only Grammar, or Independent School in the area).

However, Michaela literally has these objective features in bucket-loads, without it needing to be academically selective or fee-paying, and hence I think that its generalisability needs to be viewed with caution.

To explore why this is the case, let’s look at 3 areas: Their Head, their teachers and their pupils.

The Headmistress – Katharine Birbalsingh.

By any fair assessment, Katharine Birbalsingh is an incredibly impressive person to have running a state-funded school. She had an international upbringing, went to Oxford, and taught in 5 inner-city secondary schools in 10 years. She developed her belief in a knowledge-based education when it was still rude to talk about it publically, and became so passionate that she made headlines at the 2010 Conservative Party Conference by speaking-out about the British education system.

Not only is she the Headmistress of Michaela, but she was also its founder – the school is there because of her vision and her efforts, but – despite being utterly dedicated to its own success – she is still heavily committed to fighting the wider cause of knowledge-based education:


The Michaela pupils will see Katharine appearing on national television talking about Michaela’s uniqueness and vision. They will also see the regular rafts of visitors to the school – including camera crews – and have it consistently reinforced to them that “this school is special!”

When Katharine actually stands in front of the school and then does indeed tell them with great conviction that they are the “top of the pyramid” – the lived reality will make her own authority to say this very hard to contest. This is no game-playing illusion creation, she genuinely believes it, and she will appear to have an almost mythical status when declaring her visionary words, compared to most inner-city secondary school heads.

I have no doubt that the children will rise to things accordingly. Good luck to the rest of the Headteachers across the globe to match that!

The Teachers:

“So the idea of reserving all the clever teachers for the brightest seems wrong.” …

“To reserve the cleverest staff for the brightest children because they will want to discuss more Shakespeare is both unfair in my opinion, and simply not true. At Michaela, we take children who were years behind their chronological reading age on entry and have them writing glorious essays on Macbeth within 2 years.

If we didn’t have super bright staff (and I don’t just mean teachers), we wouldn’t be able to do that.” (my bold emphasis) [from To Miss With Love]

It is clear that Michaela have super bright (according to the post above) and super committed (according to various other criteria) staff. Including Birbalsingh, 14 individual members of Michaela staff have their own blogs, and 3 other members contribute towards the Arts blog.


Almost without doubt, teachers there will have been individually challenged at some point by people beyond the school with regards to their allegiance to Michaela, and, whilst it could of course be argued that the current hostile climate towards the school might make it hard to attract staff (which wouldn’t be the case if it was a standard model of schooling), the fact that it does have that situation means that only the most committed teachers are likely to be teaching there. Teachers who – again – are going to be highly dedicated to proving that the model can work.

It is also possible too – and I will happily be put right on this – that the current fame of Michaela could attract able and dedicated teachers from a far wider area than is the norm for state secondary schools.

In other words, it cannot be expected that the vast majority of schools could ever have such a similar body of committed professionals working for them – unless they managed to stand-out from the crowd and – by default – draw nutrients from other schools.

The Pupils

What is immensely impressive about Michaela is that it is an inner-city school, without special entry requirements, which appears – from the media available online – to be predominantly made-up of people from British ethnic minorities. As was mentioned with the staff, it is quite possible to imagine the disproportionate degree of hostility directed towards Michaela as being a negative factor which shouldn’t be the case if their model of education became widespread. However, even with the difficulties they face, Michaela appear to have a waiting list for each year group, and – though the children may well be from a great spread of economic backgrounds, and bring with them a broad spread of academic aptitudes – I think that there could be little doubt that they will all have supportive family backgrounds. What family would send their child to such a publically controversial school otherwise?

Again, I could be very wrong about this, and am happy to be told so, but I imagine that most children don’t arrive at Michaela now without their parents being highly committed to the project which the school is pioneering. In other words, as with the teachers, there has been a degree of natural selection for Michaela pupils which means that whatever the school does, it will be unusually strongly supported by the parents (for a state school). Of course – as with independent schools – there will always be a cusp of parents who want to believe in you, but are nervously waiting to be convinced, and – at any moment – could back-out of the project. However, I simply can’t see the make-up of the parent body at Michaela as being representative of what you would get from a randomly sampled state school across the country, even if Michaela’s educational philosophy was to become the dominant form of schooling.


So, what is my point? My point is that, whatever trailblazing, pioneering, prejudice-busting, paradigm-changing effect Michaela might have on our education system down the line, it – in itself – will never become a template that could become a normal model within our education system.

This is irrespective of the rightness, or adoptability of knowledge-based education as a whole: Michaela is always going to be a unique and un-generalisable point in time – whatever it manages to open the doors to down the line, and this will need to be borne in mind when the public exam measures of school success start to flow in.

Twitter and the Evolution of Reason – Part 3: The “Justification” for Injustice

The Borinqueneers

When can an injustice be done in the genuine pursuit of justice…?

This is the third in a sequence of posts triggered by one of many messy fall-outs on Twitter, and the Edu-blog community in general.

The first post, trying to step-back from a heated “he said – she said!” debate pointed to how the ‘quibbly’ nature of Twitter might well be all part and parcel of our DNA. Our reasoning ability has quite possibly evolved to serve an argumentative nature designed to ensure cohesion at a superficial level in the pursuit of survival – to silence dissent and smoke out deceivers in a group structure which is stronger than the individual.

The second post looked at how – just because we don’t fling spears at each other – we nevertheless often try to use tweet debates to simply prove the ‘others’ wrong – irrespective of how civil our rhetoric might appear.

In this last post I wish to draw attention briefly to a dark, but common area of warfare in general – whether military, political or ideological – and it could well have infiltrated the original debate under discussion – from either or both sides.

This is the notion summed-up in the expression “All’s fair in love and war”.

Now, many of you might smirk at the idea that there is a ‘war’ going on in education (there are many I think), but it is true. Although some of us might vehemently try to distance ourselves from it, and there are plenty others who don’t realise that they are committed to one side of it or another, there are deep-seated, ideological convictions regarding the way schooling should be conducted, and there are people on both sides who feel very strongly about this, and engage doggedly with their opposites.  Sometimes these exchanges are polite, and sometimes they are not, but there are people firmly committed to both the rightness of their position, and the long-term goal that it should prevail as the dominant code. As Old Andrew commented to me on this blog: “Traditionalist bloggers fought for years to get some freedom of speech in education.”

What I am interested in here is the darkest side of wars of any kind. There is a factor in all kinds of ideological struggle – political, religious, ethical, or in this case educational – where the pursuit of our perceived moral ends permits the dubious morality of our means.

This can be looked-at through the lenses of Micro and Macro Justice.

Micro justice refers to the bottom-level fair treatment of individual participants in a situation. Is this person being treated fairly?

Macro justice refers to the larger-scale societal situation, which – if achieved in itself – should supposedly cascade-down a more fair and just life. Are these systems and institutions set-up fairly?

Of course in famous 20th Century military conflicts there was the massive bombing of civilians in an attempt to end a conflict once and for all… I’m really not trying to open that debate up.

A more recent – non-military – example of this struck me during the Blair ‘New Labour’ period in Britain. “Positive Selection” processes were adopted in some situations, where ‘All Women’ or ‘All Black’ shortlists of political candidates were drawn-up, so as to try to ensure an increased level of gender and ethnic balance in Parliament. This was part of a war on inequality in society.

To many, this procedure seemed an unjust way of doing things at the level of the individual. What if there was a white male candidate on the ground who, by every reasonable measure of political ability, was simply the best person available? Surely it would be unjust to discriminate against him based on his sex and the colour of his skin? This seemed a clear level of injustice at the ‘micro’ level.

At the macro level however (the level of overall social fairness and justice) it was clear that the proportion of females and black people in Parliament simply didn’t represent the proportion of women and blacks in the culture as a whole. Whether due to a toxic culture in Parliament itself which was unconducive to them, or due to a shortage of positive role models which stopped people putting themselves forward, or due to prejudice in the voting public, there seemed to be a large degree of ongoing injustice.

Consequently, whilst the act of positive selection might seem to be unjust to some people, and could have a negative effect on their perceptions, in the long run, if it does indeed lead to a greater number of MPs who are female or from ethnic minorities, and this changes the overall pattern of people coming forward into politics and the voting public becoming more accustomed to people of both sexes and with a skin colour of any type, then a large scale level of injustice will have been corrected.

In other words, some injustice at the micro level could be seen to lead to justice being served at the larger macro level.

Do we see this happening in the public ideological battle between Progressivism and Traditionalism? Did some high profile Progressives knowingly act unfairly towards a naïve Traditionalist blogger, because they felt it would serve the greater ‘good’ of the war? Did some high profile Traditionalists knowingly act unfairly towards one or more of these Progressives – setting them up as arch-villains, so that they could use them as public examples of what all Progressives are like – and thereby allowing them to advance across some territory in the overall war?

I really don’t know. Maybe all, some or none of this took place, but I’m pretty sure that there isn’t a war which goes on, where things like this don’t happen. Small acts of micro-justice take place perpetually in the service of the greater good, and educational debate is far too close to political debate in my mind for this not to be happening.

So, what is my constructive suggestion?

It is absolutely the case that, for decades, teaching according to a Traditionalist philosophy and methodology was out of fashion with ITT, Ofsted, and school leaders. There was an open hostility and disparagement towards people who believed in its validity, and attempted to practice according to it. OA has been born of the hurt and frustration of this period.

In the past hand-full of years there has been a huge amount of ground regained by Traditionalist educators and educationalists, and – as a concerted theoretical movement on social media – they are very much in the ascendance. The tricky part is the next bit.

Can a situation be created whereby our dominant intellectual vision involves a recognition of the time and place for a plurality of educational purposes and techniques? Yes, certain techniques can be shown experimentally to be more efficient at achieving certain focused aims (always narrow in order to make them scientifically measurable). But to try to replace an existing stifling hegemony with another one is doomed to failure – as history shows us so abundantly. The outcomes of Civil-War Britain, Revolutionary France and many other revolutions show that – if the pendulum swings too in the opposite direction after a change of power, then it will inevitably – in time – swing back towards the opposite extreme again.

Andrew Old has fought for parity and acceptance for years. It is quite understandable that – in the schools of Britain – the news of the Traditionalists’ regained respectability lags some way behind how it appears on the cutting edge of social media. Consequently, it is understandable that the vigilant traditionalist won’t want to ease off on the big push just yet. They haven’t felt the sea-change in their own schools yet.

It is also possible that many of the most ardent Progressives will feel a threat in this push, and want to push back – particularly if the Traditionalists turn the push into a renewed version of “This IS the purpose of education, and this IS the scientifically best way to achieve that”.

I just don’t think that this is a ‘war’ which requires a final victor. This instead should be an increasingly rich and fertile dialogue regarding which techniques seem to bear the richest fruits, when used in certain situations, to achieve particular aims.

There need not be a ‘conqueror’.

Nelson Mandela fought for decades (incarcerated for 27 years) in order to achieve equality in South Africa. Yes, he ended-up victorious and on top, but he didn’t then try to reverse the polarity of the oppression which he had experienced. Rather, his big push was for reconciliation and genuine partnership moving forward.

Please, let’s start looking for bigger pictures of how and why different visions of education, and different approaches to fulfilling them, can fulfil the bigger goals and needs of human society as we conceive them.

I personally am working hard on such an encompassing vision, and I hope that you will read about that with interest over the forthcoming months.

Twitter and the Evolution of Reason – Part 2: Naked and ‘Civil’ Aggression


In my previous post I tried to take a distanced and reflective perspective on a recent online furore which started on a blog, escalated in a very messy way on Twitter, and has now found a home back on the blogosphere (partly here, but mainly on Scenes From The Battleground).

Though I purposefully didn’t mention any names or link to SFTB in the first post, as I’m really wanting to look at the general dynamics which seem to be in play, rather than make it personal, I will name a couple of reference points here for orientation’s sake – though I’m still going to look at a wider perspective.

Essentially, one reasonable point which Old Andrew made to me on SFTB yesterday, was that my rarefied – ‘external snapshot’ – picture of the incident didn’t take into account the historical actions of some of the participants. Consequently, what might appear to an outsider to be an uncharitable way of interpreting the intentions and motivations behind some ambiguous actions, is missing the bigger context which makes the intentions and motivations much easier to read. Consequently, I myself can’t fully appreciate the justification for publically ‘calling out’ such suspects, and identifying the trend in the broader swathe of Progressives.

There is a lot of truth to this. I don’t know for sure that someone who protests that they are being unfairly portrayed as ‘threatening’ someone, when they say they were merely ‘warning’ them for their own good, is really stating the absolute truth. The words can be painted-onto either intention.

It is also true that I don’t know for sure whether someone who expresses indignation about what they are being accused of, actually has decent intentions for doing so, or whether they are cynically using this to avoid a debate which they don’t want, and maybe weakening the opposition.

Andrew is confident that he knows for sure because he says he has seen a similar track record for those people. I do not intend to take an ultimate position, as frankly I don’t have sufficient information, and it only seems to lead to a witch-hunt in one direction or another – which I’ve never found to be helpful.

However… this situation still actually leads to several interesting ponderings. How about this:

On the one hand, if you get enough seemingly ambiguous data points building up, the likelihood of them – together – painting a broad picture of a certain kind could well increase. In that sense I can respect the pattern-detecting senses of OA which is based on pretty-much unparalleled immersion in the sphere of educational social media and wider reading and debating over the past 10 years. He has seen and participated in, and achieved, a huge amount. I genuinely think we should ‘doff our caps’ to Andrew for what he has battled-through, committed-to, and presumably sacrificed in order to get us to the parity of discussion positions which we now enjoy. He surely must have a perspective born of detail which not many of us could perceive…?

On the other hand, if you get someone with a strong enough belief system, who’s head gets buried enough in the data, then a string of random, ambiguous coincidences can certainly start to look very much like a particular thing. I mentioned confirmation bias in the previous post. In support of this, OA will himself admit to how much he has had to fight over the past decade to gain both the right to teach the way he believes is the best way to teach, and the respect for a long out-of-fashion educational philosophy. He knows the blood, sweat and tears which he has had to sacrifice for this cause. He may well naturally see conspirators in every shadow, and there certainly seems to have been an increase in the number of combative self-proclaimed Progressives to prove right his long-made conjecture that there is a real battle between Progressivism and Traditionalism. So is he not ripe for a paranoid over-reading of events…?

I really can’t say which of these two preceding dynamics are at play here, and I don’t wish to damn either side of the particular debate by giving a hunch one way or another. Quite possibly, both things are actually in motion at the same time – “just because you’re paranoid, it doesn’t mean that the world’s not out to get you”.

Despite my reluctance to get my hands dirty, and to add to the broil, there is a third line of reflection which I do wish to pursue instead – which critiques us all – and it is closest to the ideas I was ruminating about in the previous blog, when I was musing on the purposes for which reason seems to have initially developed over hundreds of millenia.

In this sense, I’m interested in the overall dynamics at play in a war such as the one between the increasingly declared Progs and Trads. For – despite my desire to see it as otherwise, it IS a war – it is a desire to convince, to convert and… it would seem… to conquer.

Naked Aggression vs Civil Aggression

First of all, in this war of educational ideologies, there are skirmishes, such as the regular spats on Twitter – none of which are ever going to change the mind of anyone who’s involved through reasoning (though according to the comments section of this blog some casual observers do get converted); they are normally the cover-fire for the proper battle, or the occasional firing of random shots over the trenches.

It would seem that there has been an escalation in the attempts to draw real blood in these exchanges in recent months, with an increase in the amount of openly abusive (not even simply barbed) tweets. To his credit, OA has blogged head-on about this problem recently – he is after all on the receiving end of a significant amount of it – and I do agree that it is the lowest form of activity on Twitter, and it is particularly disappointing to realise that it is coming from educators and educationalists.

Now, adapting and subverting some ideas from Habermas, these openly aggressive tweets could be described as Instrumental Action – or what I will term ‘naked aggression’. Rather like someone coming up and punching you, it doesn’t seek to convert you or to compromise and join with you, just to hurt you directly. Perhaps this is for revenge, or to chase you off the block, or in order to fulfil a personal twisted craving, but it is just intended to hurt. You become an object to act directly upon.

Fortunately, most Edu-Twitter interactions aren’t like this – and certainly not most of the blog exchanges (which is the arena in which I most often tend to get involved). This doesn’t mean that everything is benign and collaborative however…

Things could be fertile: My own preferred is for what Habermas calls Communicative Action. I can’t personally help being a bit of a seeker with a relatively open mind (it’s not humanly possible to have a truly open mind – to paraphrase Dawkins: “to have a fully open mind is to have a fully empty mind”). I personally try initially to never see either side of a broad debate as either being fully right or fully wrong, and I’m always pondering if there isn’t a bigger, or better way of seeing things, which manages to incorporate the nuggets of truth – or at least ‘reasonableness’ – in both sides of any honest discussions. In this respect I’m influenced by Integral Theory. With communicative action, people seek to find a joint understanding – through debate and discussion – not simply through everybody simply agreeing with everyone else in a nice and agreeable puppy-dog manner.

I think that there is of course some of this happening on Social Media (even Twitter!), but I don’t see that much of it. I very rarely see proper debates on Twitter which include comments such as “I do actually agree with that point,” or “You know, I actually think you’re right”.

Rather, between the extremes of Instrumental Action and Communicative Action, there is what could be called (again, subverting Habermas) Strategic Action, and I think this is the biggest form of Twitter debates. This is civil, rational discussion/debate, where everyone sounds like they’re listening to each other, but only in order to ensure that they can get their point over, and – ultimately – to convince others that they personally are RIGHT. This may be in a genuine attempt to get the other participant to join a side which they believe to be entirely correct, but it can also just be a ‘civilised’ attempt – but pretty much akin to the instrumental action of hurling abuse – to get one over on them and prove that you’re stronger, they’re weaker, and they need to scurry-on back to where they come from.

Discourse Analysts will tell you that there are plenty of ways of doing this. I’m certainly trying to convert you over to my opinion now by using the rhetorical device of ‘balanced reasonableness’, others may use an air of ‘thorough conviction’ (many preachers succeed with this), ‘disarming niceness’, or – of course – pure, detached, ‘mechanical rationality’ [these are not necessarily official DA categories – I’ve just made some up – Discourse Analysis is itself an arbitrary social construction used as a rhetorical device to serve someone’s ends… if it is to be believed – so we can all make up our rhetorical categories 😉 ]

Consequently, in the messy situation which developed last week, and which I ruminated about in part one of this post, any one of the participants could be portrayed as using a particular form of rhetoric in order to defend or advance their position on their preferred side of the battle-lines. The truth-value of each of their positions is a matter of perspective and interpretation – we’re not talking hard science or matters of pure logic here.

In that respect, I’m deliberately refusing to quite be drawn fully onto either side of who was right or who was wrong in it. Sorry! Rather I’m wanting to encourage all participants in Edu-Social-Media debates to become more aware of what they are really wanting to achieve through their posts, and being more reflective of what impression they are really giving to the people reading them (irrespective of the exact semantics of the words being used).

Furthermore, on the Christian Theology site Ship of Fools, they have a multi-layered discussion forum, whereby people can either post light-weight fluff in ‘Heaven’, embark on serious – but civilised – theoretical discussion in ‘Purgatory‘, or roll-up their sleaves for a more emotive fight in ‘Hell‘. Does our experience of Edu-Twitter suffer because of the lack of such distinctions…?

In the third ‘coda’ to this I will ponder another (quite grim – but universally prevalent) kind of dynamics which we could find ourselves inhabiting in an ideological ‘war’ such as that between Progressives and Traditionalists, but also a positive direction for how we could better move forward…

Twitter and the Evolution of Reasoning – Part 1: A Right Old Classic Tragedy



Twitter is a great resource for the quick dissemination of information, and it is hard to imagine being without the sharing of links, ideas and resources on Edu-Twitter these days.

And then… there is the ‘debating’ value of Edu-Twitter….

According to Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber’s The Enigma of Reason, the power of human reasoning didn’t evolve in order to help us better conquer the world through problem solving, nor even to help establish for us the ‘truth’ of things. No, they contend that it evolved to close-down dissent, chase-out cheaters, and seal-up the ‘in-group’, thereby improving our ability to function, survive and thrive as a powerful group organism in a primitive world.

In other words, we have evolved and sharpened our thinking skills in order to be very good at quibbling, arguing the toss and separating people into ‘us and them’. (Gossiping is another evolved trait designed to bond-us together tightly with our kith and kin.) Additionally, we have honed our talent for ‘confirmation bias’ – attending to and celebrating those parts of arguments or bits of evidence which support our case – whilst being blind to the power or even existence of arguments or bits of evidence which don’t. I’m sure I’m falling victim to it right now (and probably so are you).

It’s true that, sometimes, some of us are in a position whereby we can shift our opinion and even our overall worldview if we do hear a really good logical case. We genuinely can hear a speech, read a book – or even a single article – which completely changes how we see things, but we normally require quite strong emotional preparedness, and probably a sufficient level of previous doubts, that we’re already waiting for the straw which will break the camel’s back. We then take on the super-reinforced mantle of ‘the convert’; it is much harder for us to shift back again.

Essentially, we very rarely keep an open mind on a big topic once we’ve come to a public decision on it, or have decided to adopt a particular worldview which gives us a sense of identity.

Over the past week or so there was yet another messy Edu-Twitter furore, which reminds me both of a truly unfortunate classic tragedy, and also of just how close to Mercier and Sperber’s picture of reasoning Twitter, and indeed Social Media as a whole, brings us.

It was absolutely classic ‘Us and Them’ tribal behaviour, and it thrived on a bit of initial naïve emotional ‘button pressing’ by a person writing a blog on one side, plus a corresponding emotionally charged misreading of exactly what had been said by those targeted on the other side. Their resulting righteous indignation – and urgent warnings that saying such things could land the writer in real trouble – was then taken by the initial provocateur as a sufficient threat for them to delete their blog and Twitter account.

In response, fellow members of the provocateur’s tribe leapt-in to defend her, escalating the Twitter sniping and leading to an increase in skirmishes with the initial ‘victims’ – now being pilloried as ‘persecutors’. These counter-attackers could have politely and clearly pointed-out the semantic misunderstanding [the initial criticism suggested that the accused had publicly ‘sneered at and denigrated’ the principles ‘espoused’ by a particular school, but this was misread as stating that they had ‘sneered at and denigrated’ the ACTUAL school – which they said they had never done, and which could consequently be defamation].

However, instead of pointing out this misunderstanding, and possibly getting-in a bit of teasing about this careless misreading, they decided to portray the overreaction as a deliberately knowing strategy to bully-out a supposedly vulnerable person who happened to publicly disagree with them.

Whilst the Twitter venom focused on decrying with increasing moral outrage the actions of individuals, a blog post was then launched by the rescuing side in order to take the offending incident, and the – now firmly interpreted as callous – actions of the isolated ‘victims-come-persecutors’ as something which could be GENERALISED to be something indicative of their tribe as a whole.

I got caught-up in the furore myself at this point – not quite knowing the full details, but not liking the smell of the rhetoric on the blog post, and suspecting that there was an attempt to make some political capital by blowing-up a much more nuanced situation.

And so…. here we are, with me trying to ‘step back a little’, and ponder just how much we can learn about ourselves from Twitter, the evolution of reasoning, and a distastefully messy ‘right-old classic tragedy’.

In a follow-up to this post, I discuss the dynamics involved when people seem to engage in debate on social media.


In Character Education: Part 1 – the Deconstruction, I pointed to various ways in which I suspect that the whole notion of ‘character’ in schools is currently used as a rag-bag of disparate concepts and traits which lack discrete concept validity, are probably only apparent in specific domains and circumstances, and which are probably such different kinds of things from each other that to try to have a standard uniform approach to teaching individual elements is naïve.

Indeed I suggested that perhaps ‘teaching’ some character concepts might not be possible at all [though some schools do treat it as a teachable module].

In this post, I want to take the arguments a little further, but offer a guide to how I believe we might indeed educate for character in children – if not ‘teach’ character.

Firstly, a deliberate diversion…..

What is actually the best route to take in order to achieve certain goals?

During the high publicity given to the International Space Station in Britain last year, probably more than a few of us were struck for the first time by the process it takes to get a rocket/capsule to meet-up with it. The ISS only orbits 400km above the Earth’s surface. Couldn’t we just ‘see it coming’ and send a rocket on a trajectory ahead of it to intercept it at the right time and place – a bit like throwing a ball to someone who is running?

Given this intuition, the time of a least 6hrs that it takes for a meet-up (2 days prior to 2013), seems intensely slow for a rocket which can get into orbit in 8 minutes 48 seconds.

The reality of course is that it doesn’t just head straight for the space station, it sets off at a seemingly random time, from a seemingly odd location, into a seemingly arbitrary trajectory, and has to fly around the planet 4 times until it is at the right place, at the right time, at the right trajectory and just the right speed.

What is the purpose of this metaphor? Basically, how many things which we want to achieve, and how many characteristics which we want children to have as adults, might not be best acquired ‘obliquely’ – without aiming directly towards them – either because they are more complex behaviours than we give them credit for, or we underestimate the process of natural maturation and general social education.

Essentially, I believe that there is a bit of a cargo cult approach to ‘teaching’ character in some schools these days. Indeed, I think that the whole notion of ‘teaching’ character is fundamentally a cargo cult movement. The cargo cult analogy is used fairly often these days in education blogs whenever people are seen to be looking at the emergent surface features of a successful person or organisation and then attempt to mimic that particular aspect of them, in order to become successful too.

So if Richard Branson was characterised by being a risk taker, then lets teach children to be risk takers and they can be Richard Branson. Or if Roger Federer has come to be regarded as somehow better than Djokovic or Murray because of his ‘graceful play’, then let’s teach children to hit the ball gracefully, and they will become like Roger.

Indeed, recently Martin Robinson has drawn a similar comparison around Lord Nash’s pronouncement that schools should be more like businesses. McDonalds is successful; shouldn’t schools then all simply mimic the working practices of McDonalds to become successful?

Just because an attribute can be linked with successful people, this doesn’t mean that those people were ever successfully taught these things; they might simply always have been like that – or found themselves in a set of circumstances which allowed those characteristics to flourish, or indeed – might have done other things which has enabled those characteristics to emerge, particularly if those characteristics are possibly a bit of an ephemeral, transitory illusion (which character might be).

A colliding thought: How do we truly get the best out of humans?

For anyone who has ever looked inside the mechanisms of a musical box, it is a delightfully simple set-up. There is a set of tuned prongs which in turn get ‘pinged’ by small metal nodules on the outside of a cylindrical barrel. With a small implement it is possible to pluck the prongs individually to see what they sound like – but they sound muted, and it would be very hard to get a coherent tune out of them. To play the music, we don’t pluck the prongs at all, we ignore them and wind-up a spring so that the barrel turns, and if it turns a full rotation, we get a coherent melody being played. What is the equivalent for educating children? I would say that many initiatives to develop character are like this analogy.

Another analogy further into the realm of human experience: I was particularly struck by Karen Armstrong’s 2009 book The Case for God. This wasn’t a ‘tit-for-tat’ logical counterpoint to the ‘new atheism’ of Dawkings, Hitchings, Harris & Dennett. Rather, she contrasted thinking logically about the ‘truth statements’ of religion (Logos), with simply living the experience of a religious life (Mythos), and contended that the latter is how we’ve actually evolved to connect with the absolute. We experience something that we can’t deduce, which is why the logical arguments of atheists rarely completely wipe-out religious sentiment, or even pure belief.

[Whatever your interest in religion, the ‘Argumentative Theory’ of Mercier and Sperber (2011) – which periodically gets big press, such as last month in the New Yorker – I think complements Armstrong’s contention quite nicely.]

Is there something in the previous two analogies which we can take into our notion of human character here as well? Should we stop trying to atomise traits, stop trying to precisely specify, teach and argue them into existence, and instead focus on – to the best of our ability – setting the barrel of human life fully turning, so that we can experience it as we have evolved to experience it?

How does this translate?

Our notions of modern childhood have radically transformed the experience of the modern child. As much as possible we have tried to remove fear, exploitation and abuse from their lives, and replace them with a safe haven in which to discover the opportunities of life as fully as possible. This is utterly to be applauded.

However, in the process of doing this, we have also refined many parts of life beyond all recognition from the pattern of experiences that our physical and mental processes evolved in response to. Relative to their predecessors, children no longer know how to deal with a world which is intrinsically unfair, or which takes them beyond what is pleasantly comfortable, or which doesn’t leave them with a choice or a voice, or requires commitment (particularly in the long term). Consequently, we are scrambling to create character education to fill the void.  We have stripped so much fibre out of the modern educational/lifestyle diet that we’re having to invent nutritional supplements to make up for it.

Back when a childhood of education was the preserve of the wealthy, they had to create quite harsh circumstances in those schools to try to give the, otherwise too-pampered and soft, idle rich some challenging formative experience.

Poor kids on the other hand had their character tempered by everyday existence. They had to function – full-on – in an environment of hardship reminiscent of the millions of years of our ancestry.

Probably, back in those days, the uneducated poor likely derided the school experiences of their wealthier ‘masters’, as being cossetted and leaving them without real ‘grit’ or whatever vernacular would have been current. After all, they didn’t know what ‘real’ life was like.

These days however, the habits and traditions of the classic British Public schools (that’s ‘private’ to those reading from certain other countries!), are often derided as being both anachronistic and indeed ‘abusive’; relentless focus on sport, compulsory cadet training, long days in a boarding environment, a high premium placed on ‘competition’. What kind of world are they trying to prepare children for?!

So what is my solution to all this? Well, I’m not simply saying that we should become like traditional independent schools – though there is a big reference point there. Instead, I think we can create a model here which we can all learn from – rich, poor, liberal, trad.


It’s simple really. If we have a GOAL of wanting to develop a particular character trait in someone, we don’t focus on it. Instead we focus on a PURSUIT which could give rise to that particular trait if done in the right DYNAMIC.


What does this mean in practice?

This means that if we do want to develop intellectual skills such as the ability to ‘analyse’ (the goal), then we might be best-off engaging the children in the pursuit of some worthwhile area of knowledge development (the pursuit), in the context of some creative challenge (the dynamic).

Or if we want to develop character traits such as ‘resilience’ (the goal), then we are possibly best off engaging the children in the pursuit of some emotionally charged competitive situation where they are likely to fail at some point (sport or whatever), and wisely guide them in meeting the two imposters of triumph and disaster just the same (the dynamic).

I’m going to say more than this though. I’m going to suggest that we don’t worry too much on trying to isolate the individual character traits that we want to develop in the first place anyway. Far too many of them are too fuzzy and ephemeral as concepts and seem to lock-arms tightly with each other.

Instead, set ourselves the GENERAL GOAL OF WANTING TO DEVELOP ‘CHARACTER’ – that ‘extra thing’ which helps humans cope and thrive through the diverse challenges of life, then commit to fully encouraging children into A BROAD SPREAD OF CHALLENGING PURSUITS, and use our relationship with them as teachers to ensure that these are done in A DYNAMIC WHICH ALLOWS POSITIVE RATHER THAN NEGATIVE FRUITS TO EMERGE.


The kind of pursuits I’m recommending are things where, for a limited duration of time, they are the only ones that matter. They are the experiences where children commit themselves fully and strive to give the very best of themselves in the process. These experiences should cover a broad spread of endeavours, and – crucially – include things which the child is naturally good at and things which they aren’t; things which they enjoy, and things which they don’t.

So yes, this would involve some arduous physical endeavour, knee-quaking public artistic performances of some kind, utterly personal long-term creative obsessions, and intellectual adventures which leave you stunned, disorientated and questioning what you’ve always assumed. Along the way, you almost certainly would find your ‘element’ or ‘bliss’, but you wouldn’t short-circuit the formation of broader character traits by flying straight to it by the path of least resistance.

The overtone to this naturally brings to mind a competitive culture of some sort, and that is certainly a component of it. However, in pondering this, it’s worth bearing in mind the distinction between two different kinds of competition:

  • Closed, Bounded, Limited” competition – such as sports events, working for exams, proving yourself in an isolated challenging situation.
  • Open, Unbounded, Unlimited” competition – struggles to survive, to make your way through an uncertain life of relentless pressures.

The first of these can create a perfectly healthy, necessary schooling in essential character development, and can help people deal with the second, which can result in a debilitating, destructive effect.

And following-on from that, it is worth also noting the difference between two different types of stress:

  • Eustress – Positive stress which motivates, focuses energy, feels exciting and improves performance.
  • Distress – Negative stress which causes anxiety, feels unpleasant, decreases performance, causes mental or physical problems.

What is worth noting is that whether something is limited or unlimited, or is a source of eustress or distress, can, for an individual person, be a psychologically relative experience for them; We can’t simply create a definitive list of each kind, which applies equally to everyone. Rather, this is something which we manage through the DYNAMIC we apply to the situation of each child.

INDEED… a situation which initially causes a child some distress, because it feels beyond their ability to cope, could eventually become a source of eustress, because they have been carefully supported and shown that they CAN cope (the development of ‘self-efficacy’). Isn’t that what growing up in the hostile, unpredictable environment of our existence must be all about? Learning how to deal with, and cope with hitherto discomforting and threatening experiences?

Despite the apparent fulfilment here of the ‘Traditional Independent School Dream’, I do believe that the instincts to do something more are well founded. So….


Having appeared to rubbish recent moves to teach character in schools, and having appeared to wink towards the traditional all-round character education of the private sector, I do now want to show that much of what schools have recently tried to do is actually helpful, as it can provide the key dynamic through which the competitive, driven, committed approach to pursuits enables us to actually achieve the goals which we have in mind:

  • Labelling concepts helps give life to them and guides behaviour I do think that it is highly valuable to give children (and adults) a rich vocabulary to use in describing the behaviours around learning (though like the moral education we’ve done in assemblies for years, it in itself won’t guarantee changed behaviours – even if people cognitively ‘believe’ in what they preach). Essentially, it gives children a framework in which to view behaviours, and potentially internally measure themselves by.
  • The ability to think about thoughts adds agency and control Allied tightly with the previous point – children must develop the metacognitive reflective impulses to enable themselves to separate their thoughts from their actions (or indeed other thoughts) from time to time, and navigate through the framework that they’ve acquired. At this level I would also see certain simple mental habits becoming essential – suspending judgement, searching for parallels, trying to ‘take a step back’ & placing themselves amongst alternative perspectives. These really must just become reflexive responses to whatever it is that places itself in front of us. They can’t be thinking strategies; they need to be cognitive perspectives which we initially think about enough to make them something we stop thinking about and purely start thinking WITH.
  • Beliefs about the ‘self’ produce ‘self’-fulfilling prophesies Whether or not it is easy to change to it from other beliefs, the concept of ‘growth mindset’ does point to the reality that we can create self-fulfilling prophesies around our beliefs about ourselves. Developing a strong sense of self-efficacy – through the ACTUAL experience of having achieved something through our own efforts – is both the real route to ‘self-esteem’, and – to my mind – to a growth mindset.

To Summarise….

I believe that the human mind naturally develops many of its best attributes through a full engagement with a rich human life.

As educators we facilitate this through exposing children to a challenging and varied overall school experience, which continually pushes them to step out of their comfort zones and to commit themselves to wholeheartedly giving of their best.

Along the way, we give them the vocabulary to help them narrate and shape their experiences; we give them the reassurance to help them keep treading forward without too much distress; and we give them the coaching and wisdom to learn positive things from success and failure in equal measure.

Whatever we do though, we should not seek to protect them at all costs from adversity, and then seek to teach them what it would have felt like had they experienced it…

CHARACTER EDUCATION: Part 1 – the Deconstruction


In this two-part blog I aim to take a scythe to a lot of the cluttered thinking around the idea of character education, and then present a simpler, more realistic heuristic for how we might just – in reality – effectively educate for ‘character’ – if that is something you think ‘schooling’ should involve. I DO personally think it is worth pursuing…

A bit of context…

Historically, character education was very much seen as meaning ‘moral’ character – virtues which benefit society, and perhaps the eternal soul of the individual.

In recent years however, there has been a rush to add to the mix a bunch of other attributes which are focused on personal ‘performance’ – things which lead to survival and success in economic and goal-directed areas.

Consequently, when the UK DfE announced its Character Awards in 2015, and then again in 2016 the term character was portrayed as covering a broad spread of traits:

Applicants should be able to prove their programme develops character traits, attributes and behaviours that underpin success in school and work, including:

  • perseverance, resilience and grit
  • confidence and optimism
  • motivation, drive and ambition
  • neighbourliness and community spirit
  • tolerance and respect
  • honesty, integrity and dignity
  • conscientiousness, curiosity and focus

The awards support young people to develop the traits that:

  • support academic attainment
  • are valued by employers
  • enable them to make a positive contribution to British society

All young people deserve opportunities to learn:

  • how to persevere and work to achieve
  • to understand the importance of respect and how to show it to others
  • how to bounce back if faced with failure
  • how to collaborate and build strong relationships with others at work and in their private lives

Beyond this, there has essentially developed a move for schools to perhaps look at one of the more well-known 21st Century skills+ formulations – IB Learner ProfileHabits of MindBLP for example, and create a mix between them with traditional ‘character traits’ into a personal fusion reflecting the values and ethos of that school.

Indeed, it now appears that pretty much any supposedly generic mental skill, attitude, habit, disposition or learning behaviour seems able to be lumped together in a single alliance called ‘character’. United, seemingly, because they represent everything worthy in education which isn’t simply raw academic learning and achievement. In other words it has become “Examinable Curricular Attainment” vs “ALL THE OTHER THINGS”

During the rest of Part 1 of this post, I’ll highlight what I find problematic about the notion of character and the attempts which seem to be gaining traction in some parts to ‘teach’ it.

How ‘pure’ are the various concepts?

Firstly, when we do pull together an attractive selection of attributes which we want our young people to have – a lot of them start to fade under careful analysis and an attempt to pin them down precisely. Many of the traits are possibly simply ‘common sense folk psychology’ concepts which we seem to recognise intuitively, but which may not be as straightforward as we think once we start drilling into them.

So perhaps RESILIENCE is actually something which draws upon, or is built up from a mixture of other attributes, and isn’t a single thing at all. In social science this would be labelled as failing to have ‘discrete construct validity’: what we experience on the surface doesn’t come from a single place psychologically. If we measure IT, we’re actually measuring a combination of other things.

Indeed, perhaps resilience is simply something we demonstrate. It is a behaviour, brought about through a mixture of circumstances, and not a thing we ‘have’ at all.

How persistent are the various concepts?

Perhaps though, sometimes we can genuinely feel an internal experience – something where we seem to have such a clarity of mind and strength of will that we feel that nothing will knock us down. Accordingly we find ourselves acting in a resilient way. Perhaps indeed, on these occasions we can definitely say “By God! I am RESILIENT!”

However, does that mean that we always feel resilient? Or is it simply the fact that there merely happen to sometimes be situations in all of our lives where our resolve – our belief in the rightness of a situation, or our realisation in the unavoidability of the situation, or the firing of our emotions – is such that we just dig our heels in no matter what?

There will be alternative times though, when – due to quite a different mix of circumstances – we just find ourselves helpless to do much more than go with the flow. How much of the construct of resilience is simply at the whim of specific domains and situations – combined with a certain degree of genetic ‘pugnaciousness’.

Or, focusing on a different traitCURIOSITY – how often are we blind to the kinds of things which our gloriously curious child – the one we love to teach, the one who seems self-motivated to keep finding-out in our academic lessons – is  simply not interested in…? They like the world of academic knowledge, so they are curious to us, irrespective of the fact that they have no interest in the various permutations which might be thrown-up by the draw for the FA Cup, or about the life experiences of the person they have just been introduced to at a social function.

There are surely different kinds of curiosity – ‘how do things work?’ – ‘why are things the way they are?’ – ‘what will happen in next week’s episode?’ – ‘what will happen if we try this?’ – ‘what are you thinking about?’ –  ‘what is out there?’ –  ‘what is there to know which nobody else yet knows?’ plus innumerable more no doubt. What if there is no such thing as an all-round ‘curious’ child – but that each one of us might simply have an inclination to asking certain kinds of questions – to paying attention to particular kinds of thought stimulants…?

How relatively teachable are the various concepts?

Let’s just assume though that there are indeed certain traits that we could define as character, which are largely consistent across domains and situations, and which have relatively unclouded discrete causal links between ‘what we are’ and ‘what we do’. How easy is it then to teach/nurture/develop these things strategically?

This comes particularly to mind when schools lump all of these things together under a single heading such as ‘Behaviours for Learning’, and then allocate a block of weeks to focusing on each one. Often this may involve a consistent approach which includes doing an assembly on the characteristic, putting up some posters, reminding children about them during lessons, and perhaps instigating a reward system for ‘children being caught in the act’.

Are the various traits which are often picked together in these packages actually comparable kinds of things, which can be developed using the same basic approach?

PERSEVERANCE for example would seem to me (in a naïve way) a pretty straightforward quality which you COULD try to develop in children. You could, for example:

  • Demonstrate to them the VALUE of persevering, and the BELIEF that it’s worth sticking at something if you really want it – that many great outcomes only come about if you persist at something through thick or thin. – Help them to make that link between desired ends and the required means.
  • Train children behaviourally in what it takes to stick at something they don’t feel inclined to stick at (in other words use carrots & sticks to get them to go through it, giving them tacit knowledge of how to ‘cope’ with an experience of being stuck carrying-on with something when required.

So, perseverance might be open to a relatively clear-cut programme for development (or possibly not of course as it could simply depend on your unconscious motivation…). I guess in an optimistic sense it could be summarised as coming down to “the cognitive management of motivation”, and “the emotional management of contrary impulses” (although am I simply talking ‘self-regulation’ then, whatever that is…?)

This is of course all made-up on the spot by me, but I can conceive of relatively straightforward things that would need to be developed if children are to improve their ability to persevere.

Now, CURIOSITY however… What can we do here?

  • We can point out to pupils that curiosity is a good thing
  • We can try to avoid ‘shutting down’ the natural curiosity instinct through overly prescriptive practices (though this shutting down may be a fairly natural process as we get older – as the immediate world around us comes into increasingly sharp rational focus. Certainly this is one reason given for why the most randomly ‘creative’ ideas of children gradually diminish – they simply become too aware of the norms of reality to continue guessing so unreflectively any longer.)
  • We can try to find and harness an area of natural curiosity that a child might have, in order to help engage them obliquely in other areas of learning
  • We can reward them for asking questions…

Now, my question is, will any of these really turn a child who seems predisposed to be less interested in certain things (let’s say ‘the world of ideas’, ‘how things happen’, ‘why things happen’… whatever) – someone who is more easily satisfied by whatever they find in front of their eyes… will any of these things actually turn them into a more naturally curious person across all domains once they are out of the classroom…?

Ultimately perseverance would appear to be an emotionally charged, strategically guided way of behaving in certain situations, whereas curiosity would appear to be an unconscious disposition towards notable aspects of things around you. They just aren’t the same, and hence we can’t use the same potted approach to developing them.

How do we know if we have actually been successful teaching it?

My first two questions above about the purity of character constructs and the likely domain-specific circumstances in which they may or may not arise creates huge questions for how practically any character trait can be accurately measured in a person and also be shown to reflect a general attribute which they have.

And of course, moves to measure efficacy of approach will likely lead to the cheapest, quickest, shallowest approaches being adopted, just to ‘jump through the hoop’.

So, ULTIMATELY …are we wasting time on a naïve vanity project with a lot of these attempts to ‘teach character’…..?

I will try to offer some kind of positive alternative approach in Part 2 of this post…!